They do not respond to coming into contact with a chemical if it has no smell or the smell is disguised. This article by specialist Dr Adrian Morris original article published at allergy-clinic. MCS enjoyed wide acceptance as a medical condition in the popular lay media, amongst alternative practitioners, and in those individuals with non-specific symptoms who self-diagnosed themselves with MCS.
These symptoms are attributed to a chronic prolonged and low dose environmental chemical exposure. It is postulated that trigger chemicals include formaldehyde found in furnishings and plastics, ink in newsprint and printers, volatile organic compounds VOCs in cleaning materials, Freon in poorly ventilated buildings, sulphites, pesticides and other chemicals in wine and processed food products. Those affected may also be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, connective tissue disorders after silicone breast implants, reactive hypoglycaemia, drug-induced hepatitis, reactions related to living near toxic waste dumps and electromagnetism from power lines, dental amalgam disease and reactions to the petrol additive MTBE methyl-tert-butyl ether.
Figure 1: Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance IEI diagnostic criteria: Symptoms recur and are reproducible The condition is chronic Low levels of exposure lower than previously or commonly tolerated result in manifestations of the syndrome i. Immunological mechanisms mainly non-IgE have been proposed but none have been satisfactorily proven. Terr extensively reviewed the immune theories proposed by the clinical ecologists and found none could be substantiated .
Aetiological theories are usually based on empiric hypotheses drawn mostly from poor quality studies published in the fringe medical press. These have failed to establish any convincing evidential link between ill-health and day-to-day low-level chemical exposure. In studies where the chemical odour was masked or suppressed by menthol, there was no difference between the study and control group symptomatology.
Psychosom Med. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Black DW: The relationship of mental disorders and idiopathic environmental intolerance. Bell IR, Peterson JM, Schwartz GE: Medical histories and psychological profiles of middle-aged women with and without self-reported illness from environmental chemicals.
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Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome
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J Pers Soc Psychol. Neff KD: The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity. Brown MM, Jason LA: Functioning in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome: increased impairment with co-occurring multiple chemical sensitivity and fibromyalgia. Dyn Med. Download references. The trial is funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Correspondence to Christian Riise Hauge. All authors contributed to the study design.
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Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Multiple chemical sensitivity MCS is a condition characterized by recurrent, self-reported symptoms from multiple organ systems, attributable to exposure to a wide range of chemically unrelated substances at low levels. Trials registration Clinical trials identifier NCT Open Peer Review reports. Participants Participants will be recruited through several sources.
Inclusion criteria Participants will need to be aged 18 to 65 years, and provide written, informed consent. Exclusion criteria The exclusion criteria are: presence of 1 a psychotic or bipolar disorder, 2 suicidal ideations, 3 drug or alcohol abuse; and 4 previous engagement in a mindfulness-based intervention program.
What is Multiple Chemical Sensitivity?
Assessment Before randomization, all participants will be assessed, using the Schedules for Clinical assessment in Neuropsychiatry SCAN , an instrument to assess and classify the psychopathology and behavior associated with major psychiatric disorders. Randomization The randomization will be carried out as follows.
Intervention The mindfulness-based intervention in this RCT is modeled on MBCT, which is a group skills-based training approach developed to prevent relapse of depressive episodes [ 39 ]. Treatment as usual The control condition in this trial is a TAU control group for comparison with the intervention group. Measurements All outcomes will be measured at baseline, post-treatment, and at the follow-ups at 6 and 12 months.
How to Manage Environmental and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Secondary outcomes Symptom-Check List The Symptom Checklist SCL is a self-administered questionnaire for measuring psychological distress or the degree of affective distress. Mediators Rumination-reflection questionnaire The rumination subscale of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire is a item questionnaire measuring the tendency to recurrently think about threats, losses, or injustices to the self [ 50 ]. Self-Compassion Scale The Self-Compassion Scale measures the ability to have a healthy stand towards oneself that does not involve evaluations of self-worth [ 51 ].
Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire FFMQ assesses five general facets of being mindful in daily life: observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-reactivity to inner experience, and non-judging of inner experience. Ethical considerations The trial has obtained approval from the regional ethics committee registration number H , and is registered with the Danish Data Protection Agency.