The report was published ahead of a first global ministerial mental health summit in London this week. Discover Thomson Reuters. Directory of sites. South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa lose 0.
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Around nine in 10 people in low and middle income countries live in places where they regularly experience dangerous levels of outdoor air pollution. But the problem is not limited exclusively to the developing world. Thousands die prematurely in the U.
Air Pollution Deaths Cost Global Economy US$225 Billion
In many European countries, where diesel vehicles have become more common in recent years, that number reaches in the tens of thousands. More recently, the Climate Vulnerability Monitor placed the death toll at around , Independent of the source, inaction on climate change is expected to increase death and suffering.
Climate change affects human health in three ways : directly, due to extreme weather; indirectly, via environmental and ecosystem changes; or through societal systems. Extreme weather events such as heatwaves and flooding can be deadly. During the summer of there were more than 14, heat-related deaths in France alone. The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are expected to increase, threatening life in both developed and developing countries.
How Much Have Global Problems Cost the World?
The second pathway is characterised by changes in biodiversity. Warmer conditions and changes in precipitation facilitate the expansion of disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks. They can also increase the risk of waterborne diseases, such as diarrhoea, partly by causing an increase in fly populations.
No consensus regarding the dispersion of vector-borne diseases like malaria has been reached, but global warming will impact surveillance and control activities. The societal pathway has the highest death toll.
Crop failures can cause undernutrition and stress while population displacement can spark violent conflicts. Food availability is disrupted and food access is hit by fluctuation in individual incomes.
How Much have Global Problems Cost the World? A Scorecard from to | DCP3
Demographic pressure and rapidly changing diets are modifying the global food system, driving up demand for agricultural resources such as land and fertilisers. These supply and demand pressures undermine food security.
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When food scarcity is combined with loss of access to drinking water and compromised health, the cost of undernutrition can be immense. Climate change will divide the world into winners and losers, since temperate areas may benefit from milder temperatures or less risk of flooding. But the overall impact is expected to be negative and the unfair distribution of winners and losers only increases the need for action.
Climate change is likely to exacerbate food insecurity in areas that currently suffer hunger and undernutrition.